The SADF, numbering about 20,000 in 1958, would grow to almost 80,000 in the next two decades. The system was for the most part that the National Service requirement was for 720 days (two years) and subsequent reserve duty was a further 720 days.  The authorised strength of the ACF and Coast Garrison Force was 25,155 and by 31 December actual strength stood at 23,462. By the end of the 1970s, the South African military was increasingly called upon to confront external threats and internal unrest which started escalating to armed confrontation between the South African state and the liberation forces. Both were primarily reserve (Citizen Force) formations, though the division and brigade HQs were Permanent Force. The German troops stationed there eventually surrendered to the South African forces in July 1915. The 1st South African Infantry Division took part in several actions in East Africa in 1940, North Africa in 1941 and 1942, including the Second Battle of El Alamein, before being withdrawn to South Africa. 2nd Permanent Force Artillery Battery S.A.M.R. During this same period, the Engineers and Signals were grouped into the first of the 'type' formations, the South African Army Engineer Formation (in 1982) and the South African Army Signals Formation (in 1984). In the early 1960s, the military threat by the South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) and its Communist backers in South West Africa prompted the South African government to increase military service obligations and to extend periods of active duty. Expenditure cuts saw the UDF as a whole reduced. During the 1980s, the legal requirements for national service were to register for service at age sixteen and to report for duty when called up, which usually occurred at some time after a man's eighteenth birthday or on leaving school. Many Army units are routinely placed under the nine joint operational-tactical headquarters that the SANDF Chief of Joint Operations supervises directly through Joint Operations Division (IISS 2013). Signal units of the South African Corps of Signals and related signal services. As part of the post-war reorganisation, the Defence Rifle Associations were disbanded in 1948 and replaced by a new Commando organisation with a strength of 90,000 men. 4th Permanent Force Artillery Battery S.A.M.R. John Keegan, World Armies, p.639, cited in Lt Cdr Carl T. Orbann USN, 'South African Defense Policy,' Thesis for the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA., June 1984. In the early 1950s the Union undertook, however, to provide one armoured division for active service in the Middle East in the event of war in the region. Volker, WV. The army was involved in a long and bitter counter-insurgency campaign in Namibia from 1966 to 1990. Wartime expansion was again followed by rapid demobilisation after World War II. The requirements for national service changed several times during the 1980s and the early 1990s in response to national security needs, and they were suspended in 1993. It is the first United Nations peacekeeping unit that has been specifically tasked to carry out offensive operations against armed rebel groups operating in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, specifically those that threaten the State authority and civilian security. Deane-Peter Baker of the South African Institute for Security Studies said that the D&T plan, while alleviating, to an extent, the mistrust of the new South African leadership of the remaining apartheid-era South African Defence Force personnel in middle management positions, reduced the combat effectiveness of the Army, and was seen by 2011 as a mistake. , Operation Cordite (Sudan), Operation Teutonic and Operation Bulisa (both in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), Operation Pristine (Ivory Coast), Operation Vimbezela (Central African Republic) and Operation Bongane (Uganda). A military reserve force was also established by the terms of the 1912 Act and initially designated the Active Citizen Force. From 1941, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Infantry Divisions of South African troops fought in North Africa, including the Battle of El Alamein. All South African Army, Navy and Air Force soldiers (and civilians?) 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